ENERGY AND MINERALS

ENERGY / MINERALS

Rocks
Minerals
Mineral Deposits
Deformation of Rocks
Fossil Fuel Energy
Energy without Fossil Fuels



rock from the moon in polarised lightmeteorite in polarised light

ROCKS AND MINERALS


ventifact shaped by the wind

ROCKS

The Rock Cycle 1    The Rock Cycle  2 (Large)
Rock Identification Page
Igneous Rocks Page
      see also E-Learning - Magmas, Igneous Rocks, Volcanoes, and Plutons...
     see also Petrology Page... under development
Petrology -Continental  Igneous Rocks
Petrology - Coastal Igneous Rocks
Petrology - Oceanic Igneous Rocks   
Petrology - Igneous Rock Classification   
Petrology - Origins and Differentiation of Magma
Petrology - Phase Diagrams


PLUS....    Kinds of Igneous Rock    Types of Magma    Eruption of Magma    Origin of Magma     Origin of Basaltic Magma     Origin of Granitic Magma    Origin of Andesitic Magma     Magmatic Differentiation     Bowen's Reaction Series     Volcanoes and Volcanic Rocks     Plutons

Metamorphic Rocks Page

     see also E-Learning Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks...

Petrology - Metamorphism
      Petrology - Types of Metamorphism
      Petrology - Contact Metamorphism
      Petrology - Regional Metamorphism
      Petrology - Metamorphic Minerals
      Petrology - Metamorphic Reactions
      Petrology - Metamorphic Textures


PLUS...    Definition of Metamorphism      Grade of Metamorphism      Retrograde Metamorphism      Factors that Control Metamorphism      Responses of Rock to Increasing Metamorphic Grade      Metamorphism of Basalts and Gabbros      Metamorphism of Limestone and Sandstone      Types of Metamorphism      Metamorphic Facies      Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics     Pressure -temperature diagram showing metamorphic rock types     Foliated texture in metamorphic rocks     
The importance of xenoliths and inclusions in rocks:

Xenoliths and Xenocrysts - hitchikers form the deep

Sedimentary Rocks Page
      see also E-Learning - Sedimentary Rocks and Resources

PLUS...    Introduction to Sedimentary rocks      Clastic Sediments      Textures of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks      Chemical Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks      Biogenic Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks      Features of Sedimentary Rocks That Give Clues to the Environment of Deposition      Stratification and Bedding      Sedimentary Facies      Common Sedimentary Environments     Fundamental concept - superposition      Sorting in sedimentary rocks      Types of sedimentary bedding

Clastic Sediments

Makeup of clastic sediments      Size chartof clastic sediments

Shape of Sedimentary Clasts

Roundness and Sphericity      Names of shapes      Change in mineral composition of sediments as they travel downstream      Pore space in sedimentary rocks      Grain vs. Matrix supported sediments

Siliceous Sediments:

Arenites / Wackes / Mudstones - general      Arenites and Wackes - detail

Animations of the Formation of Rock Types

Igneous rock formation animation      Sedimentary rock formation animation      Metamorphic rock formation animation       

Petrology Page

Common Rock Types in Hand Specimen Page

A Photographic Atlas of Rock Breakdown Features in Geomorphic Environments  - opens in new window(15Mb! PDF file)

the mineral actinolite

MINERALS

Minerals Page
Global Mineral Codes Page - a quick reference
      see also E-Learning - An overview of Minerals - atoms / crystal structure / ionic substitution /chemical composition / general properties

Percent crustal abundance of the common minerals 

List of common minerals and their images

'click on any name to see an image..."
anhydrite   apatite 1     arsenopyrite   asbestos   barite   calcite1  2    cassiterite  chalcopyrite 1    chlorite   chromite  corundum   diamond   feldspar-albite   feldspar-microcline      feldspar-orthoclase 1  2  3  4     feldspar-plagioclase1  2  3  fluorite1 2 galena1  2   garnet   gold   graphite   gypsum 1  2  halite(salt)   hematite/haematite    hornblende 1  2  ilmenite   kyanite  limonite   magnetite1  2     manganese ore   mica-biotite1  2  mica-muscovite1  2  3   mica-phlogopite  molybdenite   olivine  pyrite1  2  pyroxene1  2    pyrrhotite   quartz1  2  3  4  5  6  rutile  siderite   smaltite  sphalerite1  2  stibnite   talc1  2  3   topaz1  2   tourmaline  zircon

muscovite in polarised lightolivine basalt in polarised light

MINERAL DEPOSITS

Australian Mineral Systems
Classification of Mineral Deposits
Mineral Sand Deposits
Salt Deposits   courtesy of  http://www.saltinstitute.org
Olympic Dam Type Deposits     
Tin Deposits
Uranium Deposits
Insitu Leach Uranium Deposits
Evaluating Mineral Deposits
Brief Glossary of Common Ore Deposit Terms
Gold Placer Deposits and the  Palmer River Goldfield
Gemstone Names
Diamond Deposits
Oil Deposits
Geothermal Related Deposits
Acid Mine Drainage
Ancient MiningTechniques
the following mineral deposit overviews courtesy  - BC and Yukon Chamber of Mines
Introduction to Prospecting and Exploring for Mineral Deposits (adapted)  by Dr. Gerry Carlson
Magmatic Base Metal Deposits (abridged) By Luca Riccio ,John McDonald
Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits by Dave Watkins and Bruce Downing
Ni-Cu-Co Type Magmatic Massive Sulphides from NewfoundlandMining
Epithermal Vein-Type Gold Deposits modified from notes by Christine Norcross
Prospecting Guidelines for Chromium, Nickel and Platinum (abridged) by Luca Riccio
Porphyry Copper Deposits by Bill McMillan 
Skarn Deposits (adapted) by Larry Meinert and Dr. Kenneth Dawson, Ph.D., P.Geo 
Vein Type Deposits (adapted) byTom Schroeter
Mineral Deposit Sampling Techniques - under development

MINERAL OPTICS

Light
Transparency
Reflection of Light
Refraction
Total Internal Reflection
Dispersion
Plane Polarized Light
Minerals
Crystal Symmetry
Crystal Systems
List of Major Gemstones by Crystal System
Optical Effects in Gemstones
Lustres
Sheen
Interference of Light
Iridescence
Play of Colour
Diffraction
Opalescence
Chatoyancy
Asterism
Spectroscope

Petrology - Biaxial Minerals



ROCK DEFORMATION

Stress and Strain      Stages of Deformation      Brittle-Ductile Properties of the Lithosphere Deformation in Progress      Evidence of Former Deformation      Fracture of Brittle Rocks      Normal Faults
Horsts and Gabens      Half-Grabens     Reverse Faults      Thrust Fault     Strike Slip Faults      Transform-Faults      Evidence of Movement on Faults      Folding of Ductile Rocks      Monoclines          Anticline    Synclines      Geometry of Folds      Classification of Folds      The Relationship Between Folding and Faulting      Folds and Topography



ENERGY

FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY

Oil and Gas in the Marine Environment

Offshore Oil Drilling
Refining of Crude Oil
Oceans & Oil Spills
Fuels
Traps
Gas
Oil Deposits
Oil Shale

E-Learning - Fossil Fuels


COAL

Coal Seam Gas
Coal Mining and Coal Formation

ENERGY WITHOUT FOSSIL FUELS



GEOTHERMAL

Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Related Deposits

SOLAR

Solar Energy and Photovoltaics

WAVES / WIND

Wave Power
Wind Power
Ancient Vertical shaft windmills
Wind towers - passive cooling
Qanats - redirecting underground water

BIOFUELS

Biofuels - Biodiesel and Alcohols 

HYDROELECTRIC

Hydroelectric Power

NUCLEAR

Geology of Uranium Deposits
Insitu Leach Uranium Deposits

FUELCELLS

Fuelcells