Australia as a Major Exporter of H2 Hydrogen
- questions that need to be addressed

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fossils and expeditions...

Australia as a Major Exporter of  H2 Hydrogen
     - questions that need to be addressed

Australia aims to be a major exporter of H2 hydrogen.

see also :Hydrogen Energy in Australia – Green or Fossil Fuel ? and Our Hydrogen Future

We are talking of vast quantities of hydrogen exported, to be used as a fuel.
Publically sourced objective information is difficult to find,
yet this is a bipartisan government declared / government subsidised major initiative that will affect all Australians
    Hydrogen gas  is described by colours depending on how it is made

In current thinking, in Australia, there are two economically viable methods to produce hydrogen. Depending on the type of energy input, both methods may produce carbon dioxide waste either directly or through using fossil fuels to provide the electricity. 

If fresh water is used, as a dry continent, with municipal and agricultural acitivities periodically affected by drought, large scale Hydrogen production sourcing surface and near surface fresh water appears problematic.
If fossil fuels are used in the short term or long term directly or indirectly in the production of H2 hydrogen then questions need to be addressed as to what happens to the resulting CO2 carbon dioxide pollution both in the short term and in perpetuity.

So in addition to hydrogen production itself, questions need to be addressed regarding CCS Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Our ethical assumption is that this hydrogen production will not directly or indirectly result in additional atmospheric pollution now or at any time in the future.Some questions need to be addressed, the answers made clear to the public before large scale production begins.

Questions about Hydrogen H2 produced by the electroloysis of water H2O
  1. What portion of export hydrogen production will derive from the electrolysis of fresh water?
  2. Australia is one of the driest continents on the planet historically and frequently subject to prolonged drought. At 100% efficiency it takes about 9kg of water to produce 1 Kg of hydrogen gas. So where are we going to obtain the necessary vast volumes of clean fresh water and will this new use for fresh water affect domestic / agricultural supply?
  3. Large amounts of electricity are necessary to produce hydrogen H2 via electrolysis from water H2O. From the outset is the electricity to come from renewable or non-renewable sources.?
  4. If electricity from non-renewable sources contemplated how will the carbon dioxide pollution be permanently dealt with?
Questions about hydrogen H2 produced from processing methane CH4 "natural gas"
  1. At a theoretical 100% efficiency 16Kg of methane CH4 will create 44Kg of carbon dioxide CO2 waste and produce 4Kg of hydrogen . So the ratio by mass of waste to product is 10:1, how is this large mass of waste captured and dealt with?
  2. After processing the Hydrogen retains 15% of the energy from the source Methane. Where does the other 85% of the energy go?
  3. What is the current efficiency of methane and carbon dioxide containment at the wellhead and in transport to the conversion facility?
  4. What is the current industrial scale efficiency of methane to hydrogen conversion?
  5. What is the current industrial scale efficiency of carbon dioxide capture from methane to hydrogen conversion?
  6. "Natural gas " at the wellhead may contain about 10% carbon dioxide plus other atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide. How are these waste wellhead gases removed, captured and dealt with?
  7. How are leaked methane and carbon dioxide from joints, faults, fractures in the geological strata, from around the wellhead, around old wellheads or in transmission to the conversion facility captured?
  8. The process of separating the hydrogen from carbon requires high-pressure steam, presumably heated by burning some of the mehtane. How is the carbon dioxide from this burning dealt with.
  9. For export the hydrogen is converted and compressed to ammonia NH4. How is the carbon dioxide produced by large amount of energy required for conversion ; get captured and dealt with?
  10. What is the current overall industrial scale efficiency of Carbon Capture Sequestration from all the above sources in the conversion process?

Minimum conditions necessary for a geological. structure to be considered for CCS Carbon Capture Sequestration

The analogy often given is a bottle of hot carbonated soft drink.
The glass bottle is the"host" rock.
The metal cap the "cap" rock.
The hot soft drink fluid, the contained and pressurised carbon dioxide.
Like in the analogy, if the cap gets ruptured, the pressure is released and the carbon dioxide rapidly bubbles out

The elephant in the room in all of this is that in order to contain the vast volumes of pressurised carbon dioxide, the "host" and "cap" rock layer must remain intact in perpetuity. Run away carbon dioxide leakage post sequestration would have catastrophic results from local to global scales
for example:

Questions about CCS Carbon Capture Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide CO2
  1. Is the cost of sequestered CO2 monitoring in perpetuity factored into the cost of the export hydrogen?
  2. Has the cost of maintaining the integrity both land based and ocean based wellheads in perpetuity been facored in to the export price?
  3. What legislation is envisaged to ensure monitoring and oversight, safety and immediate funds to deal with emergencies  are maintained in perpetuity?
  4. Will this Legislation be retrospective to cover CCS that has already taken place.
  5. Does the Constitution require changes to prevent future governments from negating the legislation? - we are looking at thousands of years
  6. Does technology and methodology exist to seal and contain CO2 blowouts and will fast reaction teams be available on standby in perpetuity?
  7. What procedures are in place to assure that blowouts do not endanger the public?
  8. Who is liable (in perpetuity) should a catastrophic event occur on land or in the sea?
  9. Currently sequestration is taking place near methane extraction points. When that is not feasible how will the carbon dioxide be transported from the site of production to distant sequestration sites?
Lots of questions - few answers - page will be updated when public information of sufficient depth becomes available