EARTH PROCESSES  /  STRUCTURES / EXTREME WEATHE
 

EARTH PROCESSES / STRUCTURES / EXTREME WEATHER

GLOBE

INTRODUCTION TO GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES
PLATES / QUAKES
AIR / WIND
WATER / ICE
TWIST / TURN / DEFORM
SOIL
EXTREME WEATHER
WEATHER BASICS




INTRODUCTION TO GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES

Earth Systems / Spheres
Image Processing - Finding Hidden Treasures an introduction
Colour Codes in Digital Images


PLATES / QUAKES

Plate Tectonics Page

Geothermal Related Mineral Deposits
Plate Tectonics Huge (animated .gif 667kb! from Univ. of Arkansas)
Plate Tectonics - simple animation
major plate tectonic features b&w sketch
 

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves

E-Learning   Earthquakes and the Earth's Interior

Earthquakes
Origin of Earthquakes
Seismology, The Study of Earthquakes
Types of Seismic Waves
Location of Earthquakes
Magnitude of Earthquakes
Earthquake Risk
Earthquake Damage
World Distribution of Earthquakes
The Earth's Internal Structure
Seismic Wave Velocities in the Earth
Layers of Different Physical Properties
Gravity Anomalies and Isostasy

Earthquake Case Histories
Earthquake Hazards and Risks
Earthquake Prediction and Control


  Tsunami (tidal wave) movies clips MPEG simulations (easiest to download and play)
  Hokkaido Japan 1993 (89k) an undersea earthquake in the Sea of Japan (on the left) sets off a tidal wave that strikes the Islands of Hokkaido (right) and Okushiri (centre right)
Chile 1960 (255k) A 9.5 Richter scale earthquake off the coast of Chile sends tidal wave across the Pacific Ocean
Hilo 1960 (285k) Three views of the same tidal wave as above as it devastates the town of Hilo on the big island of Hawaii. The town is destroyed in a few minutes. As a result the U.S.Army Corps of engineers builds a huge breakwater across the funnel shaped harbour leaving only a tiny gap to the opean ocean. As luck would have it the next tsunami to hit Hilo in 1974 strikes precisely on the only angle that goes straight through the gap and the main area of the town is destroyed once more. Hilo today has a series of loudspeakers - one of the few towns in the world with a tidal wave warning system.

Volcanoes and Volcanic  Hazards
Volcanic / Astronomy Terms

 

AIR / WIND

Deserts and Winds

Wind as a Geologic Agent
Sediment Transportation by Wind
Wind Erosion
Wind Deposits:
Sand Dunes:
Deserts
Surface Processes in Deserts
Desertification
 

WATER / ICE

Ocean Waves - Styles and Patterns
Ocean / Atmosphere System and Coastal Zones
E-Learning  The Oceans and their Margins


Mass Movement
Mass Wasting Processes
Mass Wasting  / Human Impact

Water Processes

Oceans
Underground Water
Karsts in Australia
Streams
River Systems
E_Learning   Water Quality
Streams and Drainage Systems

Groundwater

Glaciers

Hydrology
Lake Vostok in Antarctica - a huge liquid lake - time capsule hidden under the ice

SOIL

Understanding Soil Processes

Introduction  Humus  Humification   Catabolism   Anabolism   Soil Fertility

E-Learning  Weathering and Soils

TWIST / TURN / DEFORM

geological hammer

Geology in Crossection

Plan (Map) View vs. Crossection View
Some Guidelines to determine relative ages in rock crossections
Strike Dip and Apparent Dip
Stress in Rocks
Faults
Folds
Joints

E-Learning  Deformation of Rocks

Normal Faults
Horsts and Gabens
Half-Grabens
Reverse Faults
Thrust Fault
Strike Slip Faults
Transform-Faults
Evidence of Movement on Faults

Folds

Folding of Ductile Rocks
Monoclines
Anticline
Synclines
Geometry of Folds
Classification of Folds
The Relationship Between Folding and Faulting
Folds and Topography

image  crustal abundance of common elements
image  earth core
image  earthquake waves
image  earthquake maximum angle of reflection and shadow zone
image  earthquake wave pathways
image  seismometer
image  earthquake location from three seismometers
image  3d view of heat plumes beneath the earth
Principles of Stratigraphy
Breaks in the Stratigraphic Record

Conformities, Unconformities, Disconformities

Angular Unconformity
Disconformity
Nonconformity
Variation of unconformities

Stratigraphy

Youngest / Oldest
Stratigraphic Classification
The Geologic Column
Absolute Geologic Time
Features of Sedimentary Rocks That Give Clues to the Environment of Deposition
Stratification and Bedding
Sedimentary Facies
Common Sedimentary Environments

Subsidence

Karst
Caves
Sinkholes
Removal of Salt
Coal
Fluid Withdrawal
Groundwater
Oil and Gas
Sinking Cities

Karsts in Australia
     see also Space / Time    Geological / Evolutionary Time...
Slope Stability

Metamorphic structures

Contact metamorphism
Foliation
How unmetamorphosed fragments of host rock
may be preserved in overlying sediments
The effect of pressure / temperature on metamorphic minerals
Grade of Metamorphism
Retrograde Metamorphism
Factors that Control Metamorphism
Responses of Rock to Increasing Metamorphic Grade
Metamorphism of Basalts and Gabbros
Metamorphism of Limestone and Sandstone
Types of Metamorphism
Metamorphic Facies
Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics

Deformation Structures
image  Bedding plane lineations
image  Deformation due to intrusion
image  Different types of stresses
image  Compressive stress

     see also Energy / Minerals   Metamorphic Rocks...

EXTREME WEATHER







Cyclones

Tropical Cyclones - Formation, Stages and Movement
Origins of Extreme Weather

Tropical Cyclones Close and Personal
Cyclone LarryCategory 5 - exclusive photos frpm Earth Science Australia
Cyclone Larry detailed analysis of a Category 5 Cyclone
Cyclone Categories Saffir-Simpson Scale
Cyclone Risk Map of Australia  by Michael Thompson


Extreme Flooding Case Study - the Johnstone River  North Queensland contents...


extreme river flooding case study
 

Unit #1 Australian Weather and Climate
Unit #2 Satellite Image Processing to Understand Earth Processes
Unit #3 Streams / Mass Wasting / Mass Movement
Unit #4 Case Study - Extreme Flooding on the Johnstone River, Far North Queensland


Quantitative approach to Floods

Floods and flooding quantitatively
Discharge, stage, flood stage, and crest: What's the difference?
Rating a river: the relationship between discharge and stage
Flood stage and inundation area: it's not just how high the river is
What is a one hundred year flood?
Flood forecasting: forecasts based on historic data and the "100-year flood"
An example of taking historical discharges to forecasted inundations
Resources and activities


WEATHER BASICS


Rainbows
Images and Animations of Weather
Cloud Types - from University of Illinois
Beaufort Wind scale and F-Scale for Tornado strength
Ozone Depletion- Animation 56k - new window
Control of Air Pollution
Acid Rain
Weather Fundamentals - mathematics

     E-Learning   Global Change...