processes / structures / weather

go to geological processes

karsts  earthquakes  tsunami  deserts   mass wasting  water

plate tectonics   glaciers   volcanoes    differentiation   animations

go to geological structures

faults   elements   joints   unconformities  subsidence
stratigraphy   strike and dip   metamorphics   deformation   animations

go to weather

climate  fundamentals   cyclones   global change   historic    animations  

geological processes

Introduction to Geology an Overview
Karsts in Australia


Earthquakes and the Earth's Interior

Origin of Earthquakes
Seismology, The Study of Earthquakes
Types of Seismic Waves
Location of Earthquakes
Magnitude of Earthquakes
Earthquake Risk
Earthquake Damage
World Distribution of Earthquakes
The Earth's Internal Structure
Seismic Wave Velocities in the Earth
Layers of Different Physical Properties
Gravity Anomalies and Isostasy

Earthquake Case Histories
Earthquake Hazards and Risks
Earthquake Prediction and Control

Seiswave Earthquake simulation freeware 3.39Mb 3.1 or 95 (download in a separate window "seiswave.exe" , move to an empty directory and file will self extract)
*Tsunami (tidal wave) movies clips MPEG simulations
     download to a separate window - requires MPEG player software Hokkaido Japan 1993 (89k) an undersea earthquake in the Sea of Japan (on the left) sets off a tidal wave that strikes the Islands of Hokkaido (right) and Okushiri (centre right)
Chile 1960 (255k) A 9.5 Richter scale earthquake off the coast of Chile sends tidal wave across the Pacific Ocean
Hilo 1960 (285k) Three views of the same tidal wave as above as it devastates the town of Hilo on the big island of Hawaii. The town is destroyed in a few minutes. As a result the U.S.Army Corps of engineers builds a huge breakwater across the funnel shaped harbour leaving only a tiny gap to the opean ocean. As luck would have it the next tsunami to hit Hilo in 1974 strikes precisely on the only angle that goes straight through the gap and the main area of the town is destroyed once more. Hilo today has a series of loudspeakers - one of the few towns in the world with a tidal wave warning system.

Deserts and Winds

Wind as a Geologic Agent
Sediment Transportation by Wind
Wind Erosion
Wind Deposits:

Sand Dunes:


Surface Processes in Deserts


Mass Wasting
see also Mass Movement

Mass-wasting Processes

Underground Water
Hydrologic Cycle

Streams and Drainage Systems

Streams and Drainage Systems


Ocean-Atmosphere System & Coastal Zones

The Oceans and their Margins


Plate Tectonics
The Earth's Interior and Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics Images 17 colour images from USGS
Deep ocean life on mid-ocean ridges - photos
Giant clams     Black smokers    Spider crab
Tube worm       Tube worm colony
Geothermal Related Mineral Deposits

Plate Tectonics Huge (animated .gif 667kb! from Univ. of Arkansas)

Plate Tectonics - simple animation

major plate tectonic features b&w sketch

Triple Junction

Satellite view of the Sinai


Understanding the Soil Processes
Humus  Humification   Catabolism          Anabolism      Soil Fertility

Weathering and Soils



Lake Vostok in Antarctica     - a huge liquid lake
                                       - time capsule hidden under the ice

The Ten Basic Types of Volcanoes
Common Volcanic Terms
Volcanic Hazards and Case Studies
Types of Volcanoes in Australia

Air photo of three shield volcanoes
Shield volcano

3DField contouring  software freeware/shareware from Russia
Download from new window"exe" for self extracting file
Erupt 2.4 volcanic eruption simulator freeware
             Download from new window "exe" for self extracting file
16 bit version for Windows 3.11(2.7MB)
32 bit version for windows 95/ NT(2.8MB)
.....see other volcanic links

Mountain Terrain 3d landscape builder (82k)  freeware
  Download from new window "exe" for self extracting file


geological structures

geological hammer

Fault type animations
normal fault
reverse fault
thrust fault
Fault images
basic fault terms
basic fault types
tension and compression in faults
stress associated with faults
features on fault planes- slickensides
gouge and breccia

Normal Faults
Horsts and Gabens
Reverse Faults
Thrust Fault
Strike Slip Faults
Evidence of Movement on Faults

Folding of Ductile Rocks
Geometry of Folds
Classification of Folds
The Relationship Between Folding and Faulting
Folds and Topography

Crustal Abundance of common elements
earth core
earthquake waves
earthquake maximum angle of reflection and shadow zone
earthquake wave pathways
earthquake location from three seismometers
3d view of heat plumes beneath the earth

Tension jointing
Compression jointing
Joint patterns in folds
Joint patterns around intrusions
Polygonal jointing(buried lava flows)

Excellent images showing folds types, plunge, basins, domes etc
Plunge 1
Plunge 2
Degrees of folding
Principles of Stratigraphy
Breaks in the Stratigraphic Record

Angular Unconformity
Variation of unconformities
Conformities, Unconformities, Disconformities


Stratigraphic Classification
The Geologic Column
Absolute Geologic Time

Features of Sedimentary Rocks That Give Clues to the Environment of Deposition
Stratification and Bedding
Sedimentary Facies
Common Sedimentary Environments


Removal of Salt
Fluid Withdrawal
Oil and Gas
Sinking Cities

  Strike and dip image
Strike and dip

Great 3d computer generated images of rock strata at various angles,
the effect of topography and apparent dip
butte   shows fault line and unconformity
ten degree tilt
forty-five degree tilt

Igneous Rock Structures image

Metamorphic structures
Contact metamorphism

How unmetamorphosed fragments of host rock
may be preserved in overlying sediments
The effect of pressure / temperature on metamorphic minerals

Grade of Metamorphism
Retrograde Metamorphism
Factors that Control Metamorphism
Responses of Rock to Increasing Metamorphic Grade
Metamorphism of Basalts and Gabbros
Metamorphism of Limestone and Sandstone
Types of Metamorphism
Metamorphic Facies
Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics

Deformation Structures
Bedding plane lineations
Deformation due to intrusion
Different types of stresses
Compressive stress

Magmatic Differentiation
Bowen's Reaction Series
Volcanoes and Volcanic Rocks


lightning animation

Tropical Cyclones - Formation, Stages and Movement

Origins of Extreme Weather

Tropical Cyclones Close and Personal
Cyclone LarryCategory 5 - exclusive photos frpm Earth Science Australia
Cyclone Larry detailed analysis of a Category 5 Cyclone
Cyclone Categories Saffir-Simpson Scale

Ten Cloud Types - from University of Illinois

Beaufort Wind scale and F-Scale for Tornado strength

Ozone Depletion- Animation 56k

Weather Fundamentals

General Australian Climate and Map

Images and Animations of Weather

Cyclone Risk Map of Australia  by Michael Thompson

Air Pollution

Acid Rain

Global Change

Global Change

Ocean Waves - Styles and Patterns

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