Tuff Up

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Tuff Up - the up side

Red hot ash from a volcano, falls from the sky and welds together to form thick layers of rock.
We can determine which way is "up" in the ash by looking at any curved fragments in the ash layers.

tuff showing which way is up

tuff orientation

If you drop a saucer into water - the curved surface will always point downwards.
Similarly ash fragments will orient curved side downwards

curved side downwards

Space craft returning to earth enter the atmosphere curved side downwards as this is the most stable confiruration

spacecraft curved surface earthwards

Learn more about VOLCANOES