Types of craters
Simple Crater Complex Crater
Peak Ring Crater Multi Ring Basin
Impacts and extinctions
Impacts and atmospheric blow-out
Tunguska event in 1908
Common Meteorite Minerals (separate file)
How to Identify Meteorites (separate file)
Meteorites (separate file)
impacts by extraterrestrial
bodies were regarded as, perhaps, an interesting but certainly not an
phenomenon in the spectrum of geological process affecting the Earth.
concept of the importance of impact processes, however, has been
radically through planetary exploration, which has shown that virtually
all planetary surfaces are cratered from the impact of interplanetary
It is now clear from planetary bodies that have retained portions of
earliest surfaces that impact was a dominant geologic process
the early solar system. For example, the oldest lunar surfaces are
saturated with impact craters, produced by an intense bombardment, at
a 100 times higher than present impact flux, which lasted from 4.6 to
3.9 billion years ago. The Earth, as part of the solar system,
the same bombardment as the other planetary bodies.
On the Earth, a variety of
effects have been ascribed to impacts. Currently, the best working
for the origin of the Earth's moon is the impact of a Mars-sized object
with the proto-Earth. This resulted in the insertion into Earth orbit
vaporized material from the impactor and the Earth, which condensed and
accreted to form the moon. Heat generated by early impacts may have led
to outgassing of Earth's initial crust, thus, contributing to the
atmosphere and hydrosphere. Additionally, the impacting bodies
may have contributed to the Earth's budget of volatiles. This early
would also have frustrated the development and evolution of early life,
with the largest impacts having the capacity to effectively sterilize
surface of the globe. In more recent geologic time, there is evidence
at least one mass extinction event, notably that of the dinosaurs and
other species 65 million years ago, is linked to global effects caused
by a major impact event. Impacts also have some economic significance.
For example, the vast copper-nickel deposits at Sudbury, Canada are
a related result of a large-scale impact 1850 million years ago and
impact structures in sedimentary rocks have provided suitable
for economic oil and gas deposits.
Most of the terrestrial impact craters that ever formed, however, have been obliterated by other terrestrial geological processes. Some examples, however remain. To-date, approximately 150 impact craters have been identified on Earth. Almost all known craters have been recognized since 1950 and several new structures are found each year.
Types of craters
The morphology of impact
with crater diameter. This size-morphology relation is well illustrated
with fresh-appearing craters from the moon. Only the smallest impact
have a bowl-shaped form.
As crater diameter increases,
of the inner walls and rebounding of the depressed crater floor create
progressively larger rim terracing and central peaks.
At larger diameters, the single
peak is replaced by one or more peak rings, resulting in what are
termed impact basins.
This same progression in crater
is observed throughout the solar system, including on the Earth;
terrestrial craters are less well-preserved and, hence, more
to classify. One notable difference between lunar and terrestrial
craters is the lower diameter range for each morphological type on
This difference is due to the higher gravity on Earth.
On Earth, the basic types of impact structures are:
Meteorite fragments are found only at the smallest craters and they are quickly destroyed in the terrestrial environment. For impact events on Earth that form craters larger than approximately 1 km across, the pressures and temperatures produced upon impact are sufficient to completely melt and even vaporize the impacting body and some of the target rocks. For example, the peak pressure produced by the impact of a stony (chondritic) body into a common terrestrial rock, such as granite, at 25 km per second (a reasonable impact velocity for an asteroidal impact on the Earth) is 900 GPa or 9 million times atmospheric pressure. In such cases, the recognition of a characteristic suite of rock and mineral deformations, termed "shock metamorphism", which are uniquely produced by extreme shock pressures, is indicative of an impact origin.
Examples of shock effects include conical fractures known as shatter cones, microscopic deformation features in minerals, particularly the development of so-called planar deformation features in silicate minerals such as quartz, the occurrence of various glasses and high pressure minerals, and rocks melted by the intense heat of impact.
More Shatter Cones
Although the number of known impact craters on Earth is relatively small, the preserved sample is an extremely important resource for understanding impact phenomena. They provide the only ground-truth data currently available and are amenable to extensive geological, geophysical and geochemical study. Earth's impact craters also provide important data on the structure of such landforms in all three dimensions. In some cases, the large size of terrestrial impact craters, up to approximately 300 km in diameter, requires orbital imagery and observation to provide an overall view of their structure and large-scale context.
Impacts and extinctions
The tendency to discount impact processes as a factor in the Earth's more recent geologic history was severely challenged by the interpretation in 1980 that Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sediments world-wide were due to a major impact event and that impact was the causal agent for a mass extinction event. The acceptance of the K-T impact hypothesis by the more general terrestrial geoscience community was not instantaneous and considerable controversy and debate was generated. Today, there are few workers who would deny that there is abundant diagnostic evidence that a major impact event occurred at the K-T boundary. It is fair to say, however, there is less consensus on the role of impact in the associated mass extinction event, with some workers still having difficulty in accepting impact-related processes as the cause.
Impacts and atmospheric blow-out
The impact signal of the K-T event is recognizable globally, because large impact events have the capacity to blow out a hole in the atmosphere above the impact site, permitting some impact materials to be dispersed globally by the impact fireball, which rises above the atmosphere. These materials do not require atmospheric winds for dispersal and have the capacity to encircle the globe in relatively short-time periods, before eventually returning to the surface. Model calculations indicate that it does not require a K-T-sized event, which produced the buried 180 km diameter Chicxulub impact structure in the Yucatan, Mexico, to result in atmospheric blow-out. Relatively small impact events, resulting in impact structures in the 20 km size-range can produce atmospheric blow-out. At present, however, the K-T is the only biostratigraphic boundary with a clear signal of the involvement of a large-scale impact event. The involvement of impact in other boundary events in the terrestrial stratigraphic record has been suggested but little evidence has been offered.
From estimates of the terrestrial cratering rate, the frequency of K-T-sized events on Earth is of the order of one every 50-100 million years. Smaller, but still significant impact events, occur on shorter time scales and will affect the terrestrial climate and biosphere to varying degrees. The formation of impact craters as small as 20 km could produce light reductions and temperature disruptions similar to a nuclear winter. Such impacts occur on Earth with a frequency of two or three every million years. The most recent known structure in this size range is Zhamanshin in Kazaksthan, with a diameter of 15 km and an age of 1 million years. Impacts of this scale are not likely to have a serious affect upon the biosphere and cause mass extinctions. The most fragile component of the present environment, however, is modern human civilization, which is highly dependent on an organized and technologically complex infrastructure for its survival. While we seldom think of civilization in terms of million of years, there is little doubt that if civilization lasts long enough, it will suffer severely or may even be destroyed by an impact event.
In marine impacts there is also another consideration; namely, the generation of a tsunami. For example, an impact anywhere in the Atlantic Ocean by a body 400 m in diameter would devastate the coasts on both sides of the ocean with wave runups of over 60 m. The 1960 tsunami, generated by a magnitude 8.6 Chilean earthquake, is thought to have been the largest this century. An impact-generated tsunami 10 times more powerful will occur with a typical recurrence time of a few 1000 years. Small impacting bodies release their energy in the atmosphere, as an air burst. The threshold size at which this is exceeded depends on the strength of the impacting body. For example, iron impacting bodies up to 20 m will deposit their energy in the atmosphere and not reach the surface; whereas, comets as large as 200 m will deposit their energy in the atmosphere. Such air burst explosions, fortunately, are not efficient at delivering their energy to the ground, because some of initial energy is blown into space.
Tunguska event in 1908
The Tunguska event in 1908 was
the atmospheric explosion of a relatively small, approximately few tens
of metres, body at an altitude of 10 km. The energy released, has been
estimated to be 10-100 megatons TNT equivalent. Although the air blast
resulted in the devastation of 2000 sq. km of Siberian forest (Fig. 4),
there was no loss of human life due to the very sparse population.
such as Tunguska occur on a time-scale of 100's of years. Devastation
from ground zero of the 1908 Tunguska event, which was the result of a
small asteroid exploding in the atmosphere. Such events occur on
of hundreds of years.
It must be remembered that impact is a random process not only in space but also in time. The next large impact with the Earth could be an "impact-winter"-producing event or even a K-T-sized event. To emphasize this point, in March 1989 an asteroidal body named 1989 FC passed within 700,000 km of the Earth. This Earth-crossing body was not discovered until it had passed the Earth. It is estimated to be in the 0.5 km size-range, capable of producing a Zhamanshin-sized crater or a devastating tsunami. Although 700,000 km is a considerable distance, it translates to a miss of the Earth by only a few hours, when orbital velocities are considered. At present, no systems or procedures are in place, specifically for mitigating the effects of an impact.