Contents of entire course

Chemical Reactions
Biological Effects
Carbon in the Soil
Time to develop soil
Soil Erosion
Soil Pollution
see also Soil Processes  and  Web based Soil Activities and Investigations

  • Soil is an open system leaching from top down.
  • To an engineering geologist, however, soil refers to any unconsolidated material overlying the bedrock.
  • Type of soil is primarily a function of climate, organic activity, relief, and time. (ClORPT)
      1. Chemical Reactions

      2. Solution
        • Several acids from plants and atmosphere such as the Carbonic, sulfuric, nitric, and various organic acids.
        • From the atmosphere, for example:
          CO2 + H2O = H2CO3
        • Limestone dissolves relatively easily
        • Silicates dissolve more slowly leave dominantly clays and Al and Fe oxides
        • Oxydation and Hydration - Similar to the formation of Rust.
        • Hydrolysis - Formation of clays.