Page includes description of the chemical elements in seawater, the
dissolved gasses in seawater, and the processes controlling seawater
Where is ocean salinity the highest? This page includes map of
ocean salinity around the world and a cross section of ocean salinity
This site includes information about different types of waves, how
waves form, a photo gallery of waves, an interactive quiz, links
to real-time Data as well as other useful links.
This page is part of a larger site about waves, wave properties, and
behavior of waves. There are also a few questions at the end of
the reading to check your understanding.
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Investigation 3 -- Ocean Currents and
To learn more about ocean currents and circulation, visit the following
web sites: 1. Movement of Heat on the Earth
Find out more about features on the ocean floor. What is the
total area of ocean basins? What and where is the deepest point
of all the oceans? What and how tall is the highest
mountain? Click on your ocean basin of interest to learn more
about its physical features:
Some animals will make any adaptation to survive. While this
article does covers more than just marine animal adaptations, it also
mentions the development and importance of a swim bladder for
*3D renderings by Peter W. Sloss, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center,
from 2-minute (~1.85 km) gridded elevation data
To learn more about the different ocean locations, visit the
following web sites:
Where was the largest earthquake since 1900? Read about the
worst earthquake since 1900 centered in Chile through a series of
Ever wondered how scientists learn about what the seafloor looks
like below the ice? This article describes one expedition to
the Artic through the Bering Strait.
Coastal Zone Color Scanner images show a great deal about
biological productivity and currents in the ocean.
This tutorial shows the range of information that can be gleaned.
Download state geologic maps at About.com's
Maps - informative review on how to read and interpret
Geologic maps: Regional
(two or more states):
The on-line bookstore
of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Topographic maps: Local
The United States Geological Survey MapFinder
allows you to order 7.5 minute maps online for $4 per
map plus $5 s/h per order.
The United States Geological Survey maintains a
list of Map
Dealers. Click on your state to obtain a
list of retailers who sell maps.
The United States Geological Survey National
Geologic Map Database site on How
find topographic maps
site allows you to download topographic maps
(including USGS maps) for free, at various scales
(from 1:100,000 to 1:24,000).
offers free online viewing of topo, nautical and
aeronautical charts plus high altitude digital ortho
quads (nav photos). (www.maptech.com and
General Map Resources:
An excellent list of
map resources available
online can be found on the
Resources for Earth
Science and Geography
site. Included are
links to sites to make
maps, as well as links to
free downloadable outline
maps, satellite imagery,
GPS, and GIS databases.
- USGS Earth Science
includes general map
information, from how to
read maps to how to obtain
them. Also includes
links to further
planetary maps, and more.
Geographic (maps and
the United States" -
USGS fact sheet, contains
a series of depictions of
the United States, along
with information on how to
obtain additional US maps.
the World" - USGS
fact sheet, contains a
series of world maps,
including outline maps,
seismicity maps, and
political maps. Also
contains information for
ordering more specific
Maps" - USGS site of
a variety of US maps that
are available online,
including shaded relief
maps, aquifer maps, and
further information on how
to order maps not
Online Map Creation
Create a map using this input form
can select from a variety of features including
whether the topography or bathymetry of your selected
For a wide variety of thematic maps, click on "Dynamic Maps"
or "Atlas Maps". Enter a location you wish to search for, and
select from any number of themes, ranging from elevation to
ocean floor. (You may need to click on "Select a New Theme" or
"Related Atlas Maps" to find the theme you are looking
City of Coral, NOVA Video
Shows why Caribbean coral reefs are some of the most
biologically diverse locations on Earth.
Volcanoes of the Deep, NOVA Video
Fascinating look at the geological and ecological marvels of
an undersea volcano
Treasures of the Great Barrier Reef, NOVA
A look at Australia's amazing coral reef, the largest in the
Eyewitness Video: Ocean (1997)
Discusses the history of humankind's relationship with the
ocean, from the history of sailing to modern day knowledge
of the ocean's role in regulating climate.
The Oceans, Ellen J. Prager, Sylvia A.
McGraw-Hill, (2000), ISBN: 0071352538
Chronological study of the oceans, arranged by geologic eras
(Paleozoic, Cenozoic, etc.)
Mapping the Deep: The Extraordinary Story of Ocean
Science, Robert Kunzig
W.W. Norton & Company (2000), ISBN:0393320634
Well-rounded tome, covering both geological and biological
perspectives of oceanography.
Encyclopedia of the Sea, Richard Ellis
Knopf (2000), ISBN: 0375403744
Easy-to-read reference on virtually every imaginable aspect
of the ocean
Deep-Ocean Journeys : Discovering New Life at the
Bottom of the Sea, Cindy Lee Van Dover
Perseus Press (1997), ISBN: 0201154986
Focuses on the biology of the deep oceans, compiled from the
author's diving experience and other research.
DISCOVER, March 1999, "Drugs From the
Sea", (Rosie Mestel)
Discusses an area of active marine research: Marine
DISCOVER, November 1993, "Oceans Divided", (Kathy
Discusses plate tectonics and the formation of the Isthmus
of Panama, a seminal event in "recent" geologic history.
Scientific American, August 1998, Special Issue,
Includes articles on seafloor topography ("The Oceans
Revealed"), the origins of water on earth, the effect of
global warming on earth's oceans, the role of the oceans in
regulating climate and weather, and more.