A brief discussion explains "in very simple terms, wind is the
result of air movement over the Earth." Click on links to
related topics: how is wind measured? what are the world wind
records? why are some winds named?
Site reviews how clouds form. Includes some observational
activities to help students understand clouds and also examines how
clouds are tied to energy, air stability, and systems and
Read a short paragraph about the formation of rain. The
article continues with a section on measurement of rainfall,
distribution of rainfall, and religion and rainfall.
Back to topInvestigation
-- Comparing Weather Reports
To learn more about weather reports and forecasts, visit the following
This page includes sections on the secret of forecasting, weather
almanacs, raw data, services for hire, services for free, and
limitations of forecasting.
Review some general facts about air pressure, how it changes, and
what happens if it changes. The page includes a list of
suggested additional activities as well as a web site demonstration
of air pressure changes on a hot air balloon.
While this article does give some specific information about weather
conditions in Oklahoma, it also includes some detailed general
information about the nature of different high and low pressure
Air Masses and Fronts
Fronts, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite
Studies, University of Wisconsin
This page about weather and why there is weather. In addition,
it explains some of the symbols often seen on weather maps.
page from the University of Wisconsin on air masses and
fronts with different diagrams and maps of the us and
Read about cold or warm air mass source regions and consider how
your weather may be different depending on the air mass source that
affects your area.
Introduces advection and describes the differences between warm
and cold advection.
Back to topInvestigation
-- Weather Radio Sondes, Satellites, and Radar
To learn more about weather high in the atmosphere, visit the following
-- An Upper Air Probe, University of Wisconsin at Madison
Learn about the history and technology of the radiosonde that
contains instruments capable of making direct in-situ measurements
of air temperature, humidity and pressure with height, typically to
altitudes of approximately 30 km.
If you are really interested in weather radar maps, this site has
several of the entire continental United States. It also
provides links to other weather related sites.
This web page is designed for students and teachers. It
includes activities about different processes in the water cycle
with some background material to help teachers.
Print out these pages and follow the instructions to make your own
water wheel. See how the water moves from the ocean to the air
to the land and back again.
"Scientists have divided the broad spectrum of climates and ecological
communities found on Earth into biomes in different ways - some with
many divisions, some with only a few." This site focuses on some
of the common biomes with photos that accompany separate descriptions
"The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to
understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an
important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The
"Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a
description of the Arctic as a climate system."
This site provides links for several different climate proxies
including: Historical Data, Corals, Fossil Pollen, Tree Rings, Ice
Cores, Ocean & Lake Sediments
Review a list of facts and statistics about Greenhouse gases,
anthropogenic aerosols, climate change over the past century, the
evidence for human influence on global climate, future climate
change, and remaining uncertainties.
"By analyzing pollen from well-dated sediment cores collected at
critical sites, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of
vegetation change with decadal-scale resolution and to document
community changes over the last few centuries and millennia."
This comprehensive guide includes chapters on the climate system,
causes of climate change, empirical study of climate, climate
modeling, paleoclimatic change, and contemporary climate change.
Download state geologic maps at About.com's
Maps - informative review on how to read and interpret
Geologic maps: Regional (two or more
The on-line bookstore of
the American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Topographic maps: Local
The United States Geological Survey MapFinder
allows you to order 7.5 minute maps online for $4 per map plus $5
s/h per order.
The United States Geological Survey maintains a list of Map
Dealers. Click on your state to obtain a list of
retailers who sell maps.
The United States Geological Survey National Geologic Map Database
site on How
find topographic maps
TopoZone site allows you
to download topographic maps (including USGS maps) for free, at
various scales (from 1:100,000 to 1:24,000).
MapServer offers free
online viewing of topo, nautical and aeronautical charts plus high
altitude digital ortho quads (nav photos). (www.maptech.com and
General Map Resources:
An excellent list of map resources available online can be found
on the Central Michigan University
Resources for Earth Science and Geography Instruction web
site. Included are links to sites to make maps, as well as
links to free downloadable outline maps, satellite imagery, GPS, and
"Maps" - USGS Earth
Science Information Center, includes general map information, from
how to read maps to how to obtain them. Also includes links to
further information regarding topographic, thematic, planetary maps,
and more. (http://ask.usgs.gov/maps.html)
Geographic (maps and videos): 1-800-962-1643
of the United States" - USGS fact sheet, contains a series of
depictions of the United States, along with information on how to
obtain additional US maps.
the World" - USGS fact sheet, contains a series of world maps,
including outline maps, seismicity maps, and political maps.
Also contains information for ordering more specific world maps.
Maps" - USGS site of a variety of US maps that are available
online, including shaded relief maps, aquifer maps, and further
information on how to order maps not available online.
Tom Murphree and Mary K. Miller with the Exploratorium. Watching
Weather: A Low Pressure Book About High Pressure Systems and Other
Weather Phenomena, Owl Books, 1998, 154 pages, 5 1/4” x 8 1/4”,
J. Burton and K. Taylor, The Nature and Science of Rain (1997);
J.Williams, The Weather Book (2d ed. 1997).
Science, Causes of Climate Change Over the Past 1000 Years.
Thomas J. Crowley. July 14, 2000, Volume 289: 270-277.
Scientific American. The Coming Climate, Meteorological
records and computer models permit insights into some of the broad
weather patterns of a warmer world. Karl, Nicholls, and Gregory.
This magazine reviews current issues in the Earth Sciences and can serve
as a valuable supplemental resource for teachers and students
alike. Visit the web site for online articles and information
about obtaining a one-year subscription (40% discount for AGI Member
Society members; 65% discount for students).