### Energy Resources Activities

#### Energy Resources Activities

© 2002 American Geological Institute http://www.agiweb.org

#### Contents: All Activities and InvestigationsActivity 1Activity 2Activity 3Activity 4Activity 5Activity 6Activity 7Activity 8

Students are challenged to produce a report that analyzes how a 20% increase in their community's population would influence energy use in their community and to provide alternative realistic alternatives to avoid an energy-supply shortage.
Students will:
• Understand how energy resources are tied to other Earth systems.
• Participate in scientific inquiry and construct logical conclusions based on evidence.
• Recognize that energy resources are an indispensable natural resources whose use and impact on the environment needs to be carefully monitored.
• Appreciate the value of Earth science information in improving the quality of lives, globally and within the community.
Activity 1  --  Exploring Energy Resource Concepts

• "The Educator's Guide to Convection" - Jet Propulsion Laboratory

• Site defines heat, explains what heat transfer is and why it is important.
(http://www.me.umn.edu/divisions/tht/tme/ht.html)
2. Energy, Work, and Power

• "Work, energy, and power" - HyperPhysics

• Site defines each term.  Click on concept box to view a concept map that visually explains each term.  Site also includes every day examples of these concepts in action and allows you to input numbers and complete various calculations.
(http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/work.html)
• "How force, power, torque, and energy work" - HowStuffWorks

• Through a series of links, this site defines common physics terms and explains how these different concepts work together.  Includes a list of web links for further information.
(http://howstuffworks.lycos.com/fpte.htm)
• "Energy, work, and power" - PhysicsEq.com

• Click on buttons to receive definitions, mathematical derivations, and examples to help in understanding work, kinetic energy, potential energy, power, and more.
(http://www.physicseq.com/energy/energy.html)
To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity: To learn more about improving electricity generation efficiencies, visit the following web site:
• "Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN)" - Dept of Energy

• Site reviews technologies to improve energy efficiencies in a variety of sectors:
• Buildings (http://www.eren.doe.gov/EE/buildings.html)
• Transportation (http://www.eren.doe.gov/EE/transportation.html)
• Industry (http://www.eren.doe.gov/EE/industry.html)
• Power (http://www.eren.doe.gov/EE/power.html)

Activity 2  --  Electricity and Your Community
1.  Generating Electric Energy

• "Electricity Supply and Demand Fact Sheet" - EIA - DOE

• This site reviews the current issues facing electricity generation in the United States and explains how industry deals with these issues.
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/fact_sheets/supply&demand.html)
• "Electric Power Industry Overview" - EIA - DOE

• This page contains links to pages that give information on various aspects of the electric power industry.
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/prim2/toc2.html)
2.  Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy

• "Introduction to Energy" - DOE

• Online tutorial is designed for students.  Explains how energy is used and how fossil fuels are formed.
(http://www.fe.doe.gov/education/intro_energy.html)
• "Uranium Facts" - Office of Nuclear Energy

• Site uses an illustration to explain the nuclear fuel cycle and includes several facts about uranium and its use as a source of nuclear power.
(http://www.ne.doe.gov/uranium/facts.html)
3.  Hydroelectric Power

• "Hydropower Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of water as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Hydropower" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about types of hydropower, sizes of hydropower plants, trurbine technologies, and the environmental and legal issues surrounding the use of hydropower.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/hydro_basics.html)
• "Hydroelectric Power" - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

• Site gives an overview of hydroelectric power, including the history of its use, how it works, and the different types of hydropower plants.
(http://www.nrel.gov/lab/pao/hydroelectric.html)
4.  Other Resources Used to Generate Electricity

• "Bioenergy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of biomass as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Bioenergy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about biomass resources, biopower, biofuels, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/bio_basics.html)
• "Ocean Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of the oceans as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Ocean Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about wave energy, tidal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/ocean_basics.html)
• "Wind Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of wind as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Wind Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about wind energy technologies, wind turbine use, costs of use, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/wind_basics.html)
• "Geothermal Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of geothermal heat as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Geothermal Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about geothermal exploration, drilling, use and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/geo_basics.html)
• "Solar Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of the Sun as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Solar Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, solar water heating, issues surrounding the use of solar power, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/solar_basics.html)
• "Ocean Energy Systems" - Energy Educators of Ontario

• This site reviews the basics of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and wave power plants, including how they work and the advantages and disadvantages of using the oceans as an energy resource.   Includes illustrations of the different type of ocean-powered plants.
(http://www.iclei.org/efacts/ocean.htm)

To complete the investigation, each student group will need:
• Internet access: to obtain copies of your “state electricity profile”:
• Visit the Energy Information Administration State Electricity Profiles page (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/toc.html)
• Profiles can be viewed in either PDF (requires Adobe Acrobat) or HTML format

•
To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity:
• "Solar Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of the Sun as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Solar Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, solar water heating, issues surrounding the use of solar power, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/solar_basics.html)
• "Ocean Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of the oceans as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Ocean Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about wave energy, tidal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/ocean_basics.html)
• "Ocean Energy Systems" - Energy Educators of Ontario

• This site reviews the basics of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and wave power plants, including how they work and the advantages and disadvantages of using the oceans as an energy resource.   Includes illustrations of the different type of ocean-powered plants.
(http://www.iclei.org/efacts/ocean.htm)
• "Bioenergy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of biomass as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Bioenergy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about biomass resources, biopower, biofuels, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/bio_basics.html)
• "Wind Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of wind as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Wind Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about wind energy technologies, wind turbine use, costs of use, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/wind_basics.html)
• "Geothermal Energy Basics" - EREN - DOE

• Site introduces the use of geothermal heat as an energy resource.  Click on the "Back to Geothermal Energy" button at the top of the page to visit a new page that contains detailed links for more information about geothermal exploration, drilling, use and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/RE/geo_basics.html)
Activity 3  --  Energy from Coal

1.  The Formation of Coal

• "How Fossil Fuels Formed" - DOE

• (http://www.fe.doe.gov/education/energy2.html)
• "How Coal Is Formed" - Kentucky Educational Television and the American Coal Foundation

• This site contains a brief overview of how coal is formed.
(http://www.ket.org/Trips/Coal/AGSMM/agsmmhow.html)
• "How is coal formed?" - Kentucky Geological Survey

• This site explains the processes associated with the formation of coal.  Includes an illustration.
(http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webcoal/pages/coalform.htm)
• "How did the coal-bearing rocks form?" - Kentucky Geological Survey

• This site explains how sedimentary rocks that form coal reflect the environments in which they were originally deposited.
(http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webcoal/pages/coalbear.htm)
2.  Types of Coal

• "Types of Coal" - The Coal Association of Canada

• This site defines the different types of coal, as well as reviewing their uses and distributiions.
(http://www.coal.ca/coaltype.htm)
• "Types of Coal" - Kentucky Educational Television and the American Coal Foundation

• This site explains how coal "rank" is determined and defines the different types of coal.
(http://www.ket.org/Trips/Coal/AGSMM/agsmmtypes.html)
• "Coal Resource Classification System of the U.S. Geological Survey - Specific Instructions" - Wood et al., USGS Circular 891

• Excerpt from online circular explains how the USGS classifies and tracks coal resources in the United States, including rank of coal, thickness of beds, distribution, etc.  Includes maps and data.
(http://energy.er.usgs.gov/products/papers/C891/guidelines.htm#SPECIFIC)
• "Kinds and Types of Coal" - Kentucky Geological Survey

• This site uses illustrations and photographs to explain the different types of coal.
(http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webcoal/pages/coalkinds.html)

Part B: Coal Resources
To complete the investigation, each student group will need:
• Geologic map of your state or community
• Internet access: to view your state’s “Energy, Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures” profile:
• Visit the Energy Information Administration page (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/_states.html)
• Click on your state to open a new page
• Under the heading "Total Energy", click on the "Prices & Consumption" link
To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity: To learn more about plants associated with coal deposits in the United States, visit the following web sites:
• "Plant Fossils" - Illinois Geological Survey

• Site briefly reviews the plants that were found in Illinois during the "Coal Age".
(http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/fossils/plantfossils.htm)
• "Plant Fossils of West Virginia

• This site lists common fossil plants from West Virginia, which are the same plant fossils found in all bituminous coal fields of the eastern United States.
(http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/TableOfCont.html)
• "Plant Fossils in Kentucky" - Kentucky Geological Survey

• (http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webfossl/pages/plants.htm)
Activity 4  --  Coal and Your Community
Activity 5  --  Environmental Impacts and Energy Consumption

1.  Fossil Fuels and the Carbon Cycle:
• "Understanding the Global Carbon Cycle" - Woods Hole Research Center

• Site reveiws the basics of the global carbon cycle and how fossil fuels are linked to the cycle.
(http://www.whrc.org/science/carbon/carbon.htm)
• "Global Warming" - EPA

• Fact sheet explains global warming, which has been linked to emissions of greenhouse gases (including CO2).  PDF format (requires Adobe Acrobat to view).
(http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/publications/outreach/basics/whatisgwprimer.pdf)
• "The Greenhouse Effect" - EPA

• Fact sheet explains what greenhouse gases are and how the greenhouse effect works.  PDF format (requires Adobe Acrobat to view).
(http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/publications/outreach/basics/greenhouseeffect.pdf)
• "The Carbon Cycle: past and present" - University of Colorado Geology

• Site uses illustrations and numbers to show the connections between the carbon cycle and the burning of fossil fuels.
2.  Coal and Acid Rain:
• "USGS Tracks Acid Rain" -  USGS Fact Sheet FS-183-95

• Online primer defines acid rain and explains how acid rain forms and what impacts it has on the environment.  Site includes color images.
(http://btdqs.usgs.gov/precip/arfs.htm)
• "What is Acid Rain?" - About.com

• Defines acid rain and includes links to images and additional information.
• "Coal Resources in Environmentally-sensitive Lands Under Federal Management" - Watson, et al., USGS Open-File Report 95-631

• Online report presents estimates of coal-bearing acreage and coal tonnage in environmentally-sensitive areas and explains how these areas are dealt with.  Includes plates that give detailed examples.
(http://energy.er.usgs.gov/products/openfile/OF95-631/)
• "Coal-Bed Methane: Potential and Concerns" - Nuccio, V., USGS Open-File Fact Sheet 123-00

• Visit this site to learn more about the potential use of methane as an energy source, as well as some of the problems associated with its use.
(http://pubs.usgs.gov/factsheet/fs123-00/fs123-00.pdf)
• "Coalbed Methane--An Untapped Energy Resource and an Environmental Concern" - USGS Fact Sheet FS-019-97

• This site looks at the potential of using coalbed methane as an energy resource, but also considers the environmental implications associated with removing the methane from the ground.
(http://energy.usgs.gov/factsheets/Coalbed/coalmeth.html)
To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity:
Activity 6  --  Petroleum and Your Community

1.  The Nature and Origin of Petroleum and Natural Gas
• "Fossil Fuels" - Penn State University

• Reviews how hydrocarbon deposits (including oil and gas) deposits form in list format.
(http://www.geosc.psu.edu/People/Faculty/FacultyPages/Kubicki/fossilfuelforms.html)
• "Beginning the Search for Natural Gas" - - Natural Gas Information and Educational Resources

• Site reviews how natural gas deposits form and also how geologists search and discover these deposits.  Includes color diagrams and links to further information.
(http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/background.asp)
• "How Fossil Fuels Formed" - DOE

• (http://www.fe.doe.gov/education/energy2.html) 2.  The History of Oil Production in the United States
• "TODAY in (Energy) History" - California Energy Commission

• List of energy-related events that have occurred over the last 100+ years.
(http://www.energy.ca.gov/m+pco/history.html)
• "An Index of Early Petroleum History Sites

• Site contains a list of petroleum history links by state.
(http://little-mountain.com/oilwell/)
• "History of WV Mineral Industries - Oil and Gas" - West Virginia Geological Survey

• (http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geology/geoldvog.htm)
• "History of Oil and Gas Production in Illinois" - Illinois Geological Survey

• (http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/servs/pubs/geobits-pub/geobit8/geobit8.htm)
Part C: Oil and Gas Resource Use in Your Community
To complete the investigation, each student group will need:
• Internet access: to view data regarding your state’s petroleum and natural gas production, consumption, and distribution:
• Visit the Energy Information Administration State Electricity Profiles page (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/toc.html)
• Profiles can be viewed in either PDF (requires Adobe Acrobat) or HTML format

To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity: To learn more about the top oil and gas fields in the United States, visit the following web sites:
Activity 7  --  Oil and Gas Production
To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity: To learn more about secondary recovery methods, visit the following web sites:
• "How oil is recovered" - A-to-Z Science

• Uses illustrations to explain primary, secondary, and tertiary recovery of oil from reservoir rocks.
(http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozpictures/lr000984.html)
• "Oil & Gas Reservoir Life Extension" - DOE Fossil Energy

• Online article reviews importance of enhancing recovery of oil and gas from rocks.
(http://www.fe.doe.gov/oil_gas/life_extension/)
• "Carbon dioxide flooding may help resurrect old oil wells" - The University of Kansas

• (http://www.newsarchives.ku.edu/01N/MarNews/Mar26/oil.html)
• "Enhanced Oil Recovery With High-Pressure Nitrogen Injection" - by N. Mungan, Journal of Petroleum Technology, January 2001

• (http://www.spe.org/cda/jpt/content1/0,1117,3520,00.html)
• "Horizontal drilling" - University of Wisconsin

• (http://www.geology.wisc.edu/courses/g115/oil/4.html)
• "What is Hydraulic Fracturing?" - EPA Office of Water

• (http://www.epa.gov/safewater/uic/cbmstudy/hfracdef.html) To learn more about the protection of sensitive environments during oil and gas exploration and production, visit the following web sites:
• "Advanced Drilling, Completion & Stimulation" - DOE

• (http://www.fe.doe.gov/oil_gas/drilling/)
• "Fuel Oil Facts" - The Energy Source Network

• Site briefly reviews petroleum exploration, drilling techniques, means for petroleum recovery, and transporation.
• "Careers in Geosciences" - AGI

• (http://www.agiweb.org/career/)

1.  Solar Heating
• "Solar Heating and You" - EREN - DOE

• Site explains how solar heating works, including descriptions of different types of solar collectors.  Also discusses why solar energy is an important resource.  Includes directions for making a solar air heater and a glossary of relevant terms.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/erec/factsheets/solar.html) 2. Photovoltaics
• "Photovoltaic Cells" - Energy Educators of Ontario

• Site explains how photovoltaic technology has evolved, how it works, and where the technologies are typically applied.
(http://www.iclei.org/efacts/photovol.htm)
• "About Photovoltaics" - EREN - DOE

• List of links to articles that cover topics related to photovoltaics, including how photovoltaics works, different types of photovoltaic systems, materials used to make solar cells, applications and uses of photovoltaics, current uses of photovoltaics, current news about photovoltaics, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/pv/text_nav.html) 3. Wind Power
• "Wind Energy" - Energy Educators of Ontario

• Site reviews the history of using wind as an energy resource, explains how wind turbine technology works and where it is applied, and also makes predictions about the future of wind-generated power.
(http://www.iclei.org/efacts/wind.htm)
• "Wind Energy FAQ/Technical Information" - American Wind Energy Association

• List of frequently asked questions about wind as an energy resource, including information about how to calculate the amount of power in the wind at a given wind speed, the basic types of wind turbines, the cost of wind power, and more.
(http://www.awea.org/faq/index.html)
• "Wind Energy in California" - California Energy Commission

• Site gives an overview of wind energy.  Also visit the "Fast Facts" page, which gives wind facts in a table format.
(http://www.energy.ca.gov/wind/overview.html)

To complete the Inquiring Further section of this activity:
• "Large-Scale Solar Thermal Systems" - EREN - DOE
• (http://www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/ac5.html)

• "The Luz Experience" - EIA - DOE
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/renewable.energy.annual/backgrnd/ch11box.htm)
• "Solar Thermal Energy" - United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

• (http://www.uneptie.org/energy/act/re/fs/docs/thermal.PDF)
• "The Energy Story - Chapter 9: Solar Energy" - California Energy Commission

• "Photovoltaic Cells" - Energy Educators of Ontario

• Site explains how photovoltaic technology has evolved, how it works, and where the technologies are typically applied.
(http://www.iclei.org/efacts/photovol.htm)
• "About Photovoltaics" - EREN - DOE

• List of links to articles that cover topics related to photovoltaics, including how photovoltaics works, different types of photovoltaic systems, materials used to make solar cells, applications and uses of photovoltaics, current uses of photovoltaics, current news about photovoltaics, and more.
(http://www.eren.doe.gov/pv/text_nav.html)
• "Photovoltaic Power Generation" - Institute of Energy Conversion

• (http://www.udel.edu/iec/pv-gen.html) To learn more about the history of wind energy or solar energy, visit the following web sites:
• "Illustrated History of Wind Power Development" - TelosNet

• (http://telosnet.com/wind/)
• "History of Wind Energy Use" - EREN - DOE

• (http://www.eren.doe.gov/wind/history.html)
• "History Of Solar Power" - Go Solar Company

• (http://www.solarexpert.com/pvbasics2.html)
• "History of Solar Energy-Revisiting Solar Power's Past" - by Charles Smith, solarenergy.com

• "Wind Farms and Wind Farmers" - EREN - DOE

Resources:
Web Sites:

Maps:
• Geologic maps: State and local:
• The United States Geological Survey National Geologic Map Database contains information on how and where to obtain geologic maps. (http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/)
• Your state Geological Survey - find your state survey on-line at Association of American State Geologists (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/AASG/AASG.html).

• Geologic maps: Regional (two or more states):
• The on-line bookstore of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (http://bookstore.AAPG.org; 918-584-2555)
• Topographic maps: Local
• The United States Geological Survey MapFinder allows you to order 7.5 minute maps online for \$4 per map plus \$5 s/h per order. (http://edc.usgs.gov/Webglis/glisbin/finder_main.pl?dataset_name=MAPS_LARGE)
• The United States Geological Survey maintains a list of Map Dealers.  Click on your state to obtain a list of retailers who sell maps. (http://mapping.usgs.gov/esic/map_dealers/)
• The United States Geological Survey National Geologic Map Database site on How to find topographic maps (http://ngmsvr.wr.usgs.gov/Other_Resources/rdb_topo.html)
• MapServer offers free online viewing of topo, nautical and aeronautical charts plus high altitude digital ortho quads (nav photos). (www.maptech.com and www.mapserver.maptech.com)
• General Map Resources:
• An excellent list of map resources available online can be found on the Central Michigan University Resources for Earth Science and Geography Instruction web site.  Included are links to sites to make maps, as well as links to free downloadable outline maps, satellite imagery, GPS, and GIS databases. (http://personal.cmich.edu/~franc1m/locamap.htm)
• "Maps" - USGS Earth Science Information Center, includes general map information, from how to read maps to how to obtain them.  Also includes links to further information regarding topographic, thematic, planetary maps, and more. (http://ask.usgs.gov/maps.html)
• National Geographic (maps and videos): 1-800-962-1643 (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/maps/index.html)
• "Maps of the United States" - USGS fact sheet, contains a series of depictions of the United States, along with information on how to obtain additional US maps. (http://www.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/maps-us/index.html)
• "Maps of the World" - USGS fact sheet, contains a series of world maps, including outline maps, seismicity maps, and political maps.  Also contains information for ordering more specific world maps. (http://www.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/maps-world/maps-world.html)
• "National Atlas Maps" - USGS site of a variety of US maps that are available online, including shaded relief maps, aquifer maps, and further information on how to order maps not available online.  (http://www-atlas.usgs.gov/atlasmap.html?)
Videos:
• American Coal Foundation - Coal Videos

• Site contains a list of coal videos, the cost of which range from \$15.00 to free.
(http://www.acf-coal.org/pages/videos.html)
• Bullfrog Films: Energy Videos (list of about 40 videos that cover energy-related topics, ranging from energy conservation, environmental issues associated with energy use, different energy resources (solar, wind, nuclear, etc.), and more.
• PicoTurbine: Solar Power, Windmill, and Renewable Energy vidoes
Books:
• American Coal Foundation - Reading Resources

• Site provides a list of coal-related reading materials.